Welcome to another insightful blog from 1 Finance, your go-to source for all things related to personal finance and tax planning. Today, we delve into the intricate world of Employee Stock Option Plans (ESOPs) in India and the taxation implications that come along with them. ESOPs have gained prominence as a valuable component of employee compensation, offering a stake in the company’s success. However, understanding the tax implications is crucial to ensure you make the most of this benefit.
Employee Stock Option Plans, commonly known as ESOPs, are a form of equity-based compensation provided by companies to their employees. They grant employees the right to purchase a specified number of shares of the company at a predetermined price within a specific period. ESOPs align the interests of employees with those of the company, fostering a sense of ownership and dedication among the workforce.
However, some Indian companies may also provide other types of stock options and equity-based compensation schemes to their employees, although they might be less common compared to ESOPs. Here’s a brief overview of the ones that are relatively more prevalent:
RSUs (Restricted Stock Units):
Another kind of incentive a company might provide its workers is restricted stock units (RSUs). It is an agreement between an employer and employee that, if certain requirements or conditions are satisfied, the employee will receive a specified number of shares free of cost at the conclusion of the vesting period.RSUs have gained some popularity among larger Indian companies, especially those with global operations. The shares are typically granted as they vest over a specific period.
ESPPs (Employee Stock Purchase Plans):
ESPPs are also offered by some Indian companies. ESPPs allow employees to purchase company shares at a discounted price, often using a portion of their salary. The difference between ESOPs and ESPPs is mainly the price at which employees can buy the shares of the company. In case of ESOP, the price of the shares is fixed, however in ESPP, discount to the fair market value is generally fixed. These plans encourage employee ownership and loyalty by giving them the opportunity to buy company shares regularly.
Phantom Stock Plans:
Some progressive Indian companies have started considering phantom stock plans. These plans help align employees with the company’s performance without directly issuing shares.Phantom stock plans simulate the value of company stock without actually granting shares. Employees receive units or hypothetical shares that mirror the value of actual company stock. When the units vest, the employee receives a cash payment equivalent to the stock’s value.
Stock Appreciation Rights (SARs):
SARs are a type of stock option that doesn’t involve the actual issuance of shares. Instead, they provide employees with the right to receive the appreciation in the company’s stock price over a predetermined period. The employee receives the difference between the market price at the time of exercise and the base price.
It’s important to note that the prevalence of these options can vary based on the size of the company, industry, and the company’s philosophy regarding employee compensation. ESOPs remain the primary and more widely understood form of equity-based compensation in the Indian corporate landscape.
Key Terms to Know:
The “Grant Date” refers to the specific date on which a company offers its employees the opportunity to participate in an equity-based compensation plan, such as Employee Stock Options (ESOPs) or Restricted Stock Units (RSUs). It marks the initiation of the employee’s right to potentially acquire company shares at a predetermined price in the future. The value of the equity granted is typically based on the market price of the company’s stock on the grant date.
The “Vesting Period” is the duration during which an employee must remain with the company in order to gain ownership rights over the equity-based compensation, such as Employee Stock Options (ESOPs) or Restricted Stock Units (RSUs), that were granted to them. As the vesting period progresses, the employee gradually accrues the ability to exercise or access the granted equity. Once the vesting period is completed, the employee gains full ownership and can exercise their rights to purchase company shares or receive the value of the vested equity.
The “Exercise Price,” also known as the “Strike Price,” is the pre-determined cost at which an employee can purchase company shares under an equity-based compensation plan, such as Employee Stock Options (ESOPs). This price is set when the options are granted and remains fixed throughout the option’s lifespan. When employees decide to exercise their options, they buy the company shares at this predetermined price, allowing them to benefit if the market price is higher.
“Exercising” refers to the action taken by an employee to convert their equity-based compensation, such as ESOPs, into actual company shares. This involves purchasing the shares at the pre-established exercise price. The difference between the exercise price and the market price at the time of exercising represents the potential gain for the employee. After exercising, employees become shareholders and can either hold the shares or sell them in the open market.
This is also the stage the taxable event occurs which will be discussed later in this blog.
A “Vesting Schedule” outlines the timeline over which an employee becomes progressively eligible to exercise their equity-based compensation, such as ESOPs or RSUs. The schedule is typically structured in periods, often spanning years, during which a certain percentage of the granted equity vests. For instance, a four-year vesting schedule might allow an employee to vest 25% of their options after each year. This encourages employee loyalty and ensures that ownership is earned over time, incentivizing the employee to remain with the company.
LTCG and STCG:
Long-Term Capital Gains and Short-Term Capital Gains, respectively, which determine the tax rate based on the holding period of the shares.
Taxation at Different Stages:
ESOPs come with taxation implications at various stages of their lifecycle:
At the time of ESOP grant, there is no tax implication. The employee is not required to pay tax on the difference between the market price and the exercise price.
Taxation is not applicable at the vesting stage either. The employee is not liable to pay taxes on the appreciation in the shares.
Taxation comes into play when the employee decides to exercise their ESOPs. The difference between the market price at the time of exercise and the exercise price is treated as a perquisite (part of salary) and is subject to income tax as per the individual’s tax slab.
In other words, the taxable perquisite is the difference between the shares’ Fair Market Value (FMV) as of the exercise date and the exercise price, which is the amount that was actually paid by the employee.
Sale of Shares:
The tax implication upon selling the shares depends on the holding period. If the shares are held for less than 24 months (in case of unlisted shares)/ 12 months (in case of listed shares), they are considered short-term capital assets, and the gains are taxed as per the individual’s tax slab. If held for more than 24/12 months, they qualify as long-term capital assets, and Long-Term Capital Gains (LTCG) tax is applicable, currently at 20% with indexation benefits.
Employer’s Obligation to Withhold Tax on ESOP Perquisite:
As the benefit derived from exercising stock options is considered a perquisite and falls under the category of salary income for employees, it’s the responsibility of the employer to withhold (deduct) the appropriate tax amount on this income. This tax withholding occurs at the time when shares are allotted to employees. In practical terms, the employer deducts the tax from the employee’s salary in the month when the shares are allotted, which usually coincides with the exercise of the options.
This tax deduction upon exercising options affects the employee’s “net in hand salary” for that specific month. However, to support eligible start-ups and provide relief to their employees, a special provision has been introduced regarding the withholding of taxes on ESOPs. Under this provision, eligible start-ups have the flexibility to deduct tax on the perquisite income arising from the exercise of ESOPs within 14 days of one of the following events, whichever comes earlier:
After the lapse of 60 months from the end of the relevant financial year.
From the date of selling the shares acquired through the ESOP.
From the date the employee ceases to be associated with the eligible start-up.
For the purpose of this provision, “eligible start-ups” are those that are registered with the government and possess a certificate of eligibility for business from the Inter-Ministerial Board of Certification, also known as the IMB Certificate. This provision aims to provide additional flexibility to start-ups and their employees in managing the tax implications associated with ESOPs.
Reporting Requirements in Tax Return for Holding Shares:
In addition to understanding the taxation implications of ESOPs, employees who hold shares, especially in unlisted companies, have certain reporting and disclosure obligations that need to be fulfilled in their personal income tax return. These requirements ensure transparency and compliance with tax regulations. Here’s what you need to know:
Employees are required to provide details of shares held in unlisted companies in their income tax return. This includes information such as the company’s name, PAN (Permanent Account Number), and the number of shares acquired or sold during the year.
Foreign companies Stock options Plan
Even shares of foreign companies obtained through an ESOP, whether from the employee’s group company or a subsidiary in India, fall under the category of unlisted shares since they are not listed on an Indian stock exchange. For resident and ordinary resident (ROR) taxpayers in India, there are additional reporting obligations for holding shares of foreign companies:
Schedule FA (Foreign Asset Reporting):
Shares allotted by foreign companies to resident employees are categorized as foreign assets and must be disclosed in the income tax return’s Schedule FA. It’s important to note that ITR 1, a commonly used income tax return form, does not contain Schedule FA. In such cases, employees should opt for filing either ITR 2 or ITR 3, based on their specific circumstances.
Schedule AL (Asset and Liabilities):
If an employee’s total income exceeds INR 50 lakh during the financial year, they are required to report the cost of acquisition of shares held outside India in Schedule AL. This schedule captures information about the employee’s assets and liabilities.
These reporting requirements aim to provide tax authorities with a comprehensive view of an individual’s financial transactions, ensuring that all relevant income and assets are appropriately accounted for. Staying diligent in fulfilling these reporting obligations is crucial to maintaining compliance with tax regulations.
Taxability and the events do not differ in case of stocks of foreign companies. However, there are further complexities due to taxability in different countries. There’s a possibility of double taxation – being taxed on the stock options in both the home country and the foreign country. To mitigate this, many countries have Double Taxation Avoidance Agreements (DTAA) that help prevent dual taxation by allowing credits for taxes paid in one country against tax liabilities in the other.
Navigating the taxation of stock options from a foreign company requires a comprehensive understanding of both domestic and foreign tax laws. Seeking expert advice early in the process can help employees make informed decisions and optimize their financial outcomes.
ESOPs offer a unique way for employees to become stakeholders in their company’s success.
Taxation on ESOPs involves multiple stages: grant, vesting, exercise, and sale. Taxation on ESOPs is based on the difference between market price and exercise price, as well as the holding period of the shares.
Understanding the taxation rules is vital to make informed financial decisions regarding ESOPs.
ESOPs or any other equity-based compensation schemes can be a valuable addition to your compensation package, fostering a sense of ownership and commitment. However, their taxation intricacies require careful consideration to maximize their benefits. As you navigate the world of ESOPs, keep in mind the taxation rules at each stage. Always consult a tax professional or a financial advisor to make the most informed decisions and optimize your tax planning strategy.
Stay tuned for more informative blogs on 1 Finance as we continue to unravel the complexities of personal finance and taxation. If you have any questions or need expert advice, don’t hesitate to reach out to us.
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